Public organizations are now requested to continually increase its service quality to be able to compete with the private sector which is continually expanding to respond to the environment changes. One of the new paradigm in the management of the public sector is known as the New Public Management (NPM) , in which, according to some research conducted by experts, the Traditional Model of public Administration is no more suitable to the present organizational needs. A lot of work has been done towards the NPM approach , and the one , especially discussed in this writing , is the adoption of the Performance Management System (PMS) as realized by the private sector. This is because the performance measurement at the traditional model does not include the periodical evaluation towards the program as well as the individual. This measurement is also more leaning towards the economic perspective (input oriented) in which the connection between input cost and the goal has not yet been seen. For this purpose, some countries have tried to implement the PMS with some different conclusion. This writing tried to insvestigate whether the the PMS is successful or has failed based on some literature research as conducted by some scholars in this field. On the other hand, problems which are related to the implementation of the PMS and its effect towards the public sector have also been evaluated. At the end of this writing some recommendations have been presented. It is certain that each organization has different characteristics which means that the implementation of the program should be adjusted to the uniqueness of the public sector organization.