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Rivalitas elite dalam konflik etno-religius: dinamika konflik pemekaran daerah di Mamasa = Rivalry of the elites in ethno-religious conflicts: dynamics of conflict arising from territorial split of Mamasa

Nomor Panggil D-pdf
Pengarang
Pengarang/kontributor lain
Subjek
Penerbitan [Place of publication not identified]: [Publisher not identified], 2018
Program Studi
Kata Kunci :  
 Info Lainnya
Pengarang
Sumber Pengatalogan LibUI ind rda
Tipe Konten text (rdacontent)
Tipe Media computer (rdamedia)
Tipe Carrier online resource (rdacarrier)
Deskripsi Fisik xix, 396 pages: illustration ; 28 cm + appendix
Catatan Bibliografi pages 377-396
Naskah Ringkas
Lembaga Pemilik Universitas Indonesia
Lokasi Perpustakaan UI, Lantai 3
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Nomor Panggil No. Barkod Ketersediaan
D-pdf 07-19-035260138 TERSEDIA
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Tidak ada ulasan pada koleksi ini: 20487992
ABSTRAK
Disertasi ini menganalisis rivalitas elite dalam konflik etno-religius yang timbuul saat
pemekaran daerah di Mamasa, Sulawesi Barat. Pada 2002, sebagai bagian dari kerangka
besar kebijakan otonomi, Mamasa menjadi daerah otonom, dimekarkan dari Kabupaten
Polmas. Dalam pelaksanaannya muncul perbedaan antara kelompok pro dan kelompok
kontra pemekaran. Rivalitas kelompok pro versus kelompok kontra semakin runyam
karena merepresentasikan kontestasi antara kabupaten induk versus kabupaten
pemekaran
Kabupaten Polmas mendukung kelompok kontra yang ingin tetap bergabung dengan
kabupaten induk. Sebaliknya Kabupaten Mamasa memberi dukungan kepada kelompok
pro. Rivalitas dua kelompok tersebut menimbulkan kekacauan dalam sistem pemerintahan
karena terjadi dualisme pemerintahan, yang membuat penyelenggaraan pemerintahan
tidak berjalan normal sehingga mengganggu pelayanan publik.
Penelitian disertasi ini menggunakan metode kualitatif. Data lapangan diperoleh
melalui teknik wawancara mendalam, observasi lapangan, dan data sekunder. Berbagai
studi menunjukkan bahwa otonomi dapat memicu konflik karena persaingan elite dalam
perebutan posisi-posisi politik, sumber daya ekonomi, dan ruang kekuasaan lainnya.
Namun, berbeda dengan studi-studi literatur sebelumnya yang lebih bertumpu pada
konflik politik atau konflik etnik, penelitian ini menunjukkan politisasi identitas
etno-religius sebagai instrumen yang menimbulkan konflik antara dua etnik berbeda
agama, Mandar-Islam versus Toraja-Kristen. Pemekaran daerah mengubah konstelasi
dominasi sosio-politik. Mandar-Islam yang mayoritas berubah menjadi minoritas,
sebaliknya Toraja-Kristen yang tadinya minoritas menjadi mayoritas.
Rivalitas elite memperebutkan ruang kekuasaan di daerah otonom baru dengan
menggunakan politik identitas yaitu sentimen identitas etno-religius berdasar perubahan
konstelasi dominasi dan hegemoni sosio-politik di Mamasa. Akibatnya, orang
Mandar-Islam (orang PUS) menolak pemekaran yang dianggap sebagai bentuk proyek
Kristenisasi. Menurut Fox (1999), apabila kerangka religius yang ditantang maka
responnya adalah sikap defensif yang cenderung konflik. Sebab, agama menyangkut sistem
kepercayaan yang mengandung ketaatan pada nilai-nilai, memiliki standar dan tata aturan,
membangun kohesivitas di antara penganutnya, sekaligus melegitimasi setiap tindakan para
aktornya.


ABSTRACT
Pemekaran daerah which literally means territorial split or administrative
fragmentation whereby new provinces and districts are created by dividing existing ones
and which ironically strengthens the sense of identity based on race, ethnic group, religion,
and other communal identity is one that triggers such conflicts. This study discusses the
rivalry of the elites in the ethno-religious conflicts that erupted during the process of
territorial split of Mamasa district of West Sulawesi, Indonesia, in 2002. Mamasa, which
was once part of the mother district of Polmas, was established into an autonomous
district. Not only was the district divided but people in this region also had differing
opinion on the idea of territorial split. Supporters of the administrative fragmentation were
dubbed pro while opponents were called kontra
The conflict between the two factions had escalated because the conflict itselt was also
the representation of conflict between the mother district and the newly-established
district. The government of Polmas ditrict was with the kontra while the government of
Mamasa gave their full support for the pro. The rivalry between the two parties had
brought chaos to the government system. The government was divided (government
dualism).
This research uses qualitative method. The data were collected through in-depth
interviews, field observations, and secondary data. Studies reveal that autonomy is the
potential cause of conflicts because it allows for competition among the contending elites
who fight for political positions, economic resources, and other aspects of power. Unlike
previous literature studies that put an emphasis on political conflicts and ethnic conflicts,
this research focuses on ethno-religious conflicts involving two contending ethnic groups
practicing two different religions: the Mandar who are predominantly Muslims and the
Toraja who are Christians. The territorial split has indeed changed the socio-political
constellation. The Mandar who was once the dominant ethnic group is now a minority and
the Toraja have now become the dominant ethnic group.
The competition among elites in the newly-established autonomous district by using
the sentiment of ethno-religious identity has changed the constellation of socio-political
hegemony and domination in Mamasa. As a result, the Muslim-Mandar (the PUS people)
voiced their opposition to the territorial split which they consider part of Christian mission.
Fox (1999) states that when a religious framework is challenged, the response will be the
defensive action that is prone to conflict. This is due to the fact that religion is a belief
system that organizes adherents to the values, has standards and norms, builds
cohesiveness among its followers, and legitimate the actors